Computational cancer neoantigen prediction: current status and recent advances

Open AccessPublished:November 20, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iotech.2021.100052
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      Highlights

      • In this review article the current status and most recent advances in computational neoantigen prediction are presented. The article guides through the available tools and discusses the challenges and novel methods that are being developed to resolve them.

      ABSTRACT

      Over the last few decades, immunotherapy has shown significant therapeutic efficacy in a broad range of cancer types. Anti-tumor immune responses are contingent on the recognition of tumor-specific antigens, which are termed neoantigens. Tumor neoantigens are ideal targets for immunotherapy since they can be recognized as non-self antigens by the host immune system and thus are able to elicit an anti-tumor T-cell response. There are an increasing number of studies that highlight the importance of tumor neoantigens in immunoediting and in the sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade. Therefore, one of the most fundamental tasks in the field of immuno-oncology research is the identification of patient-specific neoantigens. To this end, a plethora of computational approaches have been developed in order to predict tumor-specific aberrant peptides and quantify their likelihood of binding to patients’ Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecules in order to be recognized by T-cells. In this review, we systematically summarize and present the most recent advances in computational neoantigen prediction, and discuss the challenges and novel methods that are being developed to resolve them.

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